Heinrich Himmler : A Life

Heinrich Himmler : A Life by Peter Longerich

Book: Heinrich Himmler : A Life by Peter Longerich Read Free Book Online
Authors: Peter Longerich
Browder,
Foundations
, 110. Prime Minister Alfred Freyberg joined the SS in November 1933 and from spring 1934 was registered as a leader in the SD Office. Reich Governor Loeper (who was also responsible for Brunswick) was given the rank of SS-Gruppenführer shortly after Himmler’s appointment: BAB, BDC, SS-O Friedrich Wilhelm Loeper, Himmler’s telegram of congratulation on his appointment dated 12 February 1934; SS-O Alfred Freyberg.
     
66 . Browder,
Foundations
, 111.
     
67 . Buchheim, ‘SS’, 42; Browder,
Foundations
, 111.
     
68 . On Saxony see Aronson,
Heydrich
, 160 f. In Dresden the SD had a valuable contact in the shape of Herbert Mehlhorn, from 1 September 1933 deputy president of the Saxon Secret State Police. Mehlhorn was a member of the SD. On Himmler’s appointment in Saxony see also Browder,
Foundations
, 111 f.
     
69 . BAB, NS 19/1724, 17 December 1933; BAB, BDC, SS-O Loeper, Himmler’s letter of congratulation dated 12 February 1934. On the context see Gerhard Wysocki,
Die Geheime Staatspolizei im Land Braunschweig. Polizeirecht und Polizeipraxis im Nationalsozialismus
(Frankfurt a. M. and New York, 1997), esp. 58 f.
     
70 . BAB, BDC, SS-O Klagges.
     
71 . Aronson,
Heydrich
, 166; on this conflict see also Browder,
Foundations
, 94 ff.
     
72 . In June 1933 Klagges brought Jeckeln back to Brunswick from SS headquarters in Munich, where he had been sent in 1932 because of his involvement in bomb attacks. Jeckeln had cooperated with Klagges in the conflict with the SD: see Wysocki,
Geheime Staatspolizei
, 63; BAB, BDC, SS-O Jeckeln, letters of appointment dated 6 February 1933 and 9 August 1933.
     
73 . Browder,
Foundations
, 109 f.
     
74 . Ibid. 115.
     
75 . For a summary of the reasons for Himmler’s success see ibid. 114 f.
     
76 . On Braunschweig, Hessen, and Saxony see ibid. 111 ff.; on Baden see Stolle,
Geheime Staatspolizei
, 87; Eiber, ‘Führung’, 109 ff., points out that Gauleiter Kaufmann’s control of the political police in Hamburg was such that he was able to delay the systematic persecution of the Social Democrats—in view of the strong position of SPD supporters within the administration—until autumn 1934.
     
77 . This arrangement lasted until the Bavarian political police was finally incorporated into the Gestapo in 1937. See Ludwig Eiber, ‘Polizei, Justiz und Verfolgung in München 1933 bis 1945’, in Richard Bauer
et al.
(eds),
München—‘Hauptstadt der Bewegung’. Bayerns Metropole und der Nationalsozialismus
(Munich, 2002; 1st edn. 1993), 235–43.
     
78 . The assertion that Himmler was seeking to create a unified German police force right from the start (Aronson,
Heydrich
, 134; Herbert,
Best
, 137 f.; put in a rather more general way by Browder,
Foundations
, 98 f.) is supported only by the retrospective statements by Best and Eberstein. Significantly, there is no contemporary evidence for it.
     
79 . On the police in Prussia in 1933 see Browder,
Foundations
, 50 ff.; Tuchel,
Konzentrationslager
, 47 ff. On Daluege’s role see Aronson,
Heydrich
, 75 ff., and Cradle, ‘Honor’, 92 ff.
     
80 . For details on Daluege’s alienation from Himmler see Aronson,
Heydrich
, 80.
     
81 . On the formation of the Prussian Gestapo see ibid. 82 ff.; Browder,
Foundations
, 55 ff.; Christoph Graf,
Politische Polizei zwischen Demokratie und Diktatur. Die Entwicklung der preußischen Politischen Polizei vom Staatsschutzorgan der Weimarer Republik zum Geheimen Staatspolizeiamt des Dritten Reiches
(Berlin, 1983), 108 ff.; Tuchel,
Konzentrationslager
, 53 ff. The Law Concerning the Creation of a Secret State Police Office of 26 April 1933 is crucially important, see
PrGS
1933, 122 f.
     
82 . Browder,
Foundations
, 58 f., provides a number of examples: the head of the Gestapo office in Breslau, Emanuel Schaefer, was an SD member as was his subordinate, Günther Patschowski, whom Schäfer had recruited (see also ibid. 115; BAB, BDC, SS-O Emanuel Schäfer, Assessment by

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